Victorian London was renowned for its prisons and places of correction – Dickens vividly portrayed the harsh conditions and inhuman treatment of prisoners.
Technically “London” didn’t become the capital until after the 16th century. What we now call “the City of London” was an entity of its own, the ancient square mile which Rome founded. Londinium
By the late 18th Century, Britain was the leading slaver nation, selling about 40% of Africans transported between 1761 and the abolition of the trade-in 1807.